According to the Vietnamese dictionary, objects discarded from processed materials are called thu mua phế liệu. Thus, in the process of using raw materials, all that is discarded becomes scrap. However, this interpretation is quite similar to waste. Because waste is rubbish and is also discarded after use. Therefore, if by this definition, scrap is a form of waste.
According to the field of legal science, the concept of scrap has been clarified. Accordingly, scrap is a product or material that is excluded during consumption or production. These waste materials must meet the requirements to continue being used as raw materials for production.
The Law on Environmental Protection (2005) defines scrap as products that are discarded during use but recovered for use as production materials.
Although the use of words is slightly different, in terms of legal nature, these two definitions are not different.
Standards for distinguishing waste from waste
The rejected product must meet the following criteria to be called scrap. Specifically:
Product or material
Products are things created by human labor. These products may exist in intangible or physical form. However, according to environmental laws, products can only be objects that exist in the form of objects and they must belong to the environment component. Therefore, intangible products are not scrap.
Materials are things used to do something. Therefore, materials can be understood as materials in nature or processed. These can be used in the manufacturing process.
Eliminated in production or consumption
‘Rejected’ means those that are removed from the consumption or production process. In consumption, this action means that the owner does not include it to exploit value or utility. In manufacturing, this concept is distinguished between worker behavior and owner behavior. ‘Removed’ is only considered to be the owner’s behavior during the production process. Accordingly, the owner will give up the intention to use that product in production. Owner’s behavior may be expressed by non-action or action.
Being recovered as raw production materials
The product or material that becomes scrap should depend on the owner’s behavior. Acts are divided into withdrawals for sale in the form of goods or as materials or for disposal. For example, if the second hand the owner does not wear and sells to someone else as secondhand goods, this product is a commodity. In case the owner uses second hand clothing as a production material or sells it to another person as raw material, it becomes scrap. In the case that the old clothes are not used for any purpose, it becomes a waste to be treated.
It can be found here that it is difficult to devise a general principle for assessing the purpose of owner revocation. In fact, evaluation of revocation purposes can only be done through specific cases.
There are 3 types of scrap on the market today. Specifically:
This type of scrap accounts for about two-thirds of total scrap production. Raw scrap includes construction soil or rock, or when mining minerals, glass, bricks, concrete, ash, etc. These wastes cannot be broken down or burned so it will pile up after being released into the environment. . It will be used to build the low-lying area. In general, with the current climate change, these raw materials can consolidate soil dunes, encroachment on sea or rocks.
Scrap is not dangerous
Non-hazardous waste accounts for about one third of total scrap production. Non-hazardous waste consists of flowers, leaves, wood, straw, carton, paper, plastic … They can bring economic benefits because it can be used in circulation such as burning to get hidden heat, composting …
Hazardous waste accounts for less than 4% of total scrap production. Hazardous scraps are those that contain substances that are harmful to humans, organisms, and the environment. They include radioactive materials, chemicals, medical wastes … Radioactive materials can also be stored and waiting for them to fission. And other materials must decompose them in different ways.
Unexpected benefits from recycling
According to EPA research, recycling metal scrap metal brings many benefits. Specifically:
- Save up to 75% energy
- Save up to 90% of raw materials used
- Air pollution is reduced by 86%
- Water use is reduced by 40%
- Water pollution is reduced by 40%.
- Mining wastes decreased by 97%
If recycling scrap steel to make new steel will save:
- 1,115 kg of iron ore
- 625 kg of coal
- 53 kg of limestone
Currently in Vietnam, buying scrap for recycling not only helps clean the environment, saves resources but also helps economic growth of businesses themselves. It can be said that scrap purchasing is a relatively profitable field.